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Internet Domain Suffixes Directory

Internet Suffixes Directory

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An Internet Suffix is the last portion of an Internet Domain Name, which is commonly known as a Top Level Domain or TLD. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has currently classified three categories of Internet Suffixes: (a) country code [ccTLD] domains (b) generic top-level domains [gTLD] and (c) infrastructure top-level domains [iTLD].

Type of Network or Location
Internet Top Level Domains image
.ac Ascension Island
.ad Andorra
.ae United Arab Emirates
.aero Air Transportation Industry
.af Afghanistan
.ag Antigua and Barbuda
.ai Anguilla
.al Albania
.am Armenia
.an Netherlands Antilles
.ao Angola
.aq Antarctica
.ar Argentina
.arpa Arpanet Network
.asia Pan-Asia/Asia Pacific Networks
.as American Smoa
.at Austria
.au Australia
.aw Aruba
.ax Aland Islands
.az Azerbaijan
.ba Bosnia / Herzegovina
.bb Barbados
.bd Bangladesh
.be Belgium
.bf Burkina Faso
.bg Bulgaria
.bh Bahrain
.bi Burundi
.biz U.S. Business Network
.bj Benin
.bl Saint Barthelemy
.bm Bermuda
.bn Brunei Darussalam
.bo Bolivia
.br Brazil
.bs Bahamas
.bt Bhutan
.bv Bouvet Island
.bw Botswana
.bm Belarus
.bz Belize
.ca Canada
.cat Catalan Linguistic Networks
.cc Cocos Keeling Islands
.cd Democratic Republic of the Congo
.cf Central African Republic
.cg Congo Republic of
.ch Switzerland
.ci Ivory Coast / Cote D'Ivoire
.ck Cook Islands
.cl Chile
.cm Cameroon
.cn China
.co Colombia and Commercial Networks
.com Commercial Web Site
.coop Cooperative Associations Networks
.cr Costa Rica
.cs Formerly Czechoslovakia unused since 1993
.cu Cuba
.cv Cape Verde
.cx Christmas Island
.cy Cyprus
.cz Czech Republic
.de Germany
.dj Djibouti
.dk Denmark
.dm Dominica
.do Dominican Republic
.dz Algeria
.ec Ecuador
.edu Educational Network
.ee Estonia
.eg Egypt
.eh Western Sahara
.er Eritrea
.es Spain
.et Ethiopia
.eu European Union Network
.fi Finland
.firm Firm Network
.fj Fiji
.fk Falkland Islands/Malvinas
.fm Micronesia
.fo Faroe Islands
.fr France
.fx Metropolitan France
.ga Gabon
.gb Great Britain
.gd Grenada
.ge Georgia
.gf French Guiana
.gg Guemsey
.gh Ghana
.gi Gibraltar
.gl Greenland
.gm Gambia
.gn Guinea
.gov Government Network
.gp Guadeloupe
.gq Equatorial Guinea
.gr Greece
.gs South Georgia/South Sandwich Islands
.gt Guatemala
.gu Guam
.gw Guinea-Bissau
.gy Guyana
.hk Hong Kong
.hm Heard and McDonald Islands
.hn Honduras
.hr Croatia/Hrvatska
.ht Haiti
.hu Hungary
id Indonesia
.ie Ireland
.il Israel
.im Isle of Man
.in India
.info Information Network
.int International Treaty Networks
.io British Indian Ocean Territory
.iq Iraq
.ir Iran
.is Iceland
.it Italy
.je Jersey
.jm Jamaica
.jo Jordan
.jobs Jobs Networks
.jp Japan
.ke Kenya
.kg Kyrgyzstan
.kh Cambodia
.ki Kiribati
.km Comoros
.kn Saint Kitts/Nevis
.kp North Korea
.kr South Korea
.kw Kuwait
.ky Cayman Islands
.kz Kazakhstan
.la Laos
.lb Lebanon
.lc Saint Lucia
.li Liechtenstein
.lk Sri Lanka
.lr Liberia
.ls Lesotho
.lt Lithuania
.lu Luxembourg
.lv Latvia
.ly Libya
.ma Morocco
.mc Monaco
.md Moldova
.me Montenegro
.mf Saint Martin
.mg Madagascar
.mh Marshall Islands
.mil U.S. Military Network
.mk Macedonia
.ml Mali
.mm Myanmar
.mn Mongolia
.mo Macau
.mobi Mobile Networks
.mp Northern Mariana Islands
.mq Martinique
.mr Mauritania
.ms Montserrat
.mt Malta
.mu Mauritius
.museum Museum Networks
.mv Maldives
.mw Malawi
.mx Mexico
.my Malaysia
mz Mozambique
.na Namibia
.name Individuals/Families Networks
.nato NATO Network
.nc New Caledonia
.ne Niger
.net Network Networks
.nf Norfolk Island
.ng Nigeria
.ni Nicaragua
.nl Netherlands
.no Norway
.nom Personal Network
.np Nepal
.nr Nauru
.nt Neutral Zone
.nu Niue
.nz New Zealand
.om Oman
.org Organizational Network
.pa Panama
.pe Peru
.pf French Polynesia
.pg Papua New Guinea
.ph Philippines
.pk Pakistan
.pl Poland
.pm St. Pierre and Miquelon
.pn Pitcairn Island
.post Postal Services
.pro Professional Networks
.pr Puerto Rico
.ps Palestinian Territory Occupied
.pt Portugal
.pw Palau
.py Paraguay
.qa Qatar
.re Reunion Island
.ro Romania
.rs Serbia
.ru Russian Federation
.rw Rwanda
.sa Saudi Arabia
.sb Solomon Islands
.sc Seychelles
.sd Sudan
.se Sweden
.sg Singapore
.sh Saint Helena
.si Slovenia
.sj Slalbard/Jan Mayen Islands
.sk Slovakia
.sl Sierra Leone
.sm San Marino
.sn Senegal
.so Somalia
.sr Suriname
.st Sao Torme and Principe
.store Retail Business Networks
.su Former USSR
.sv El Salvador
.sy Syria
.sz Swaziland
.tc Turks and Caicos Islands
.td Chad
.tel Internet Communications Services
.tf French Southern Territory
.tg Togo
.th Thailand
.tj Tajikistan
.tk Tokelau
.tl Timor-Leste
.tm Turkmenistan
.tn Tunesia
.to Tonga
.tp East Timor
.tr Turkey
.travel Travel Networks
.tt Trinidad and Tobago
.tv Tuvalu
.tw Taiwan
.tz Tanzania
.ua Ukraine
.ug Uganda
.uk United Kingdom
.um United States minor outlying islands
.us United States
.uy Uruguay
.uz Uzbekistan
.va Vatican City
.vc Saint Vincent / Grenadines
.ve Venezuela
.vg British Virgin Islands
.vi United States Virgin Islands
.vn Viet Nam
.vu Vanuatu
.web World Wide Web Networks
.wf Wallis and Futuna Islands
.ws Samoa
.xxx Adult Entertainment
.ye Yemen
.yt Mayotte
.yu Yugoslavia
.za South Africa
.zm Zambia
.zr Zaire
.zw Zimbabwe

Web Hosting - When You Need A Dedicated Server

Most Web hosting companies offer packages that mean your site shares a server with several other companies. This shared hosting model is fine if you’re a relatively small business but as you grow there may come a time when you need to look at getting a dedicated server to look after your needs alone.

This doesn’t, of course, mean that you need to have the server on your own site. You can still use a specialist hosting company but what dedicated hosting means is that an entire server is set aside for your own use. Although you don’t control it directly it means you get an input into the choice of hardware and software used.

The advantages are in performance, security and stability and control – you can choose when scheduled downtime takes place for example. Dedicated hosting is expensive though so it’s best suited to sites that are likely to carry a high volume of traffic.

Factors to Consider

Many of the considerations you need to take into account when choosing a dedicated host are the same as those for a more standard shared hosting service. Though you rent or own the server itself the hosting provider will still charge you for bandwidth and with a high traffic site this will be a major factor. Often bandwidth is pooled such that you will have access to additional capacity that’s shared with other sites in order to allow for spikes in traffic at peak times.

A dedicated server should offer you more control over what software is used. You can therefore install your own scripts or shopping cart solutions in order to fully customise the setup to your needs. The hosting package will usually include a control panel that allows you to access and manage the server remotely. This means that your own IT staff can be in charge of updates and changes to the site even though it’s physically located elsewhere. Note that this is not to be confused with full server management – the ability to install and update operating systems and so on – which is usually retained by the hosting company.

Key Points to Look At

  • Backup – make sure your host has a backup regime in place. Ask how often the server will be kept and how long copies of data are retained before being overwritten.
  • Disaster recovery – in the event of a major problem what measures are in place. Is there a hot site backup? How long will it take to switch across to an alternative system?
  • Security – what anti-virus, firewall and anti-spam protection is in use? If you have a dedicated server do you get to install your own preferred solutions?
  • Uptime requirements – you should look for guaranteed uptime in excess of 99.5%. Make sure this is written into the contract.
  • Operating system – which OS will the server use? Do you have a choice and how much control do you have over when updates and new versions are implemented?
  • Access – how much access does the server control panel convey? Are your employees able to access the server remotely and securely, via a VPN for example?
  • Service fees – you need to understand what you’re paying for. Common fees include server rental, bandwidth charges, operating system and software licences, and management fees. There may also be one-time setup fees.

Moving to a dedicated server for your hosting is a major step. But when your business reaches a critical point where you’ve outgrown shared solutions it can offer the best way of providing a reliable online presence for your customers. 

Jann Webb is a freelance writer and former systems analyst. When looking for dedicated hosting she recommends you choose a reliable supplier such as Ant Hosting.


Cheap Internet Domain Name Registration

Internet Domain Name Registration is the process that enables users to establish a named site on the net. An Internet site can consist of any number of information services including: world wide web, email, FTP, remote database access, and other capabilities. Registration of a new Internet domain requires the payment of a lease fee. Domain names can be leased for 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, or even 100 years. Three of the largest domain registration services located in the United States are: GoDaddy with 19.6 million domains, Network Solutions with 6.6 million domains, and Dotster with 1.1 million domains. Trying to find a short available domain name in the .com namespace can be quite an effort these days. Network Solutions gives you a software interface that can help you find available names that are similar. You can also find software programs that can assist. The best rule to follow when trying to find a good available domain name is "don't give up!" Contrary to popular belief it is still possible to find a good domain name.

How to Choose the Right Web Hosting Company

You have made up your mind that you will buy a domain name (or several) and take out web hosting from a website hosting provider.

First some considerations about the domain name(s)
Domain names do not really have anything to do with web hosting and can be registered independently from the hosting package. There are advantages if you have domain name and hosting separate. For example, if the hosting company you selected fails to provide a good service, all you need to do is find a better website hosting company and change the domain name settings. If you have domain name and hosting with the same company and the company ceases trading, the last thing they think about is your hosting or domain name. By having them separate, you are lowering the risk.
Disadvantages of registering the domain name with your hosting company
Many website hosting companies offer to register domain names on your behalf. You think that your domain name is with your hosting company, when, in fact, they register it through some third party registrar for you. You then receive an invoice in 2 years time from a company you never heard of, ignore it, and in the worst case lose your domain name. Furthermore, in many cases, you will not get access to your domain name details nor will you be given a domain name control panel. Why do you need a domain name control panel? You need to be able to update the contact information for your domain name(s). If you move house for example and do not update you domain name details and for some reason you need to change registrar etc. (or because your web hosting company ceased trading), you are in danger of losing your domain name because you cannot prove any longer that you are the owner of a certain domain name. Also, a domain name control panel allows you to change email forwarding, web forwarding, and most importantly, the domain name servers, as well as some other settings. Check out 123-Reg if you want to find out more about that.
Larger hosting providers
Have a good look around online and check out different providers. There are many large hosting companies out there such as 1and1. The advantage of registering with a large hosting company is that they have hardly any downtime and their servers will be fast and up-to-date with the latest spam protection etc. Website hosting can be costly though if you register with a large web hosting company and if you want any additional services, you will have to pay for them. Support can be an issue too - you usually have to fight through hundreds of "Frequently Asked Questions" before you are allowed to send an email to their support team. You might also have to call a Premium Rate phone number if you need to speak to someone urgently. These rates can rate from £0.50 to £2 per minute (!) or even more. In most cases, you will receive good support, but in some cases you might be put through to an unexperienced person who has to speak to their supervisor to double-check things frequently - and all that at a premium rate! The biggest problem with large web hosting providers is that if you miss the annual payment and do not react to their payment reminders - they will remove your website, your account, without further notice. In some cases, there will not be any chance to recover your website. With a large web hosting company, your website is just a number in a very large pool of websites. If they lose your custom, so what!
Web hosting with a smaller web hosting provider
If you find a reliable smaller web hosting provider, chances are that you will receive a personal service, and support questions are answered with a lot more detail and a lot quicker. Most likely, you can call a UK landline or an 0845 or 0870 number which is a lot cheaper than £2 per minute. In some cases, you might be able to receive a reply to your support question - which you sent on a Saturday evening - that same night. If you miss your payment with a smaller web hosting company, they will most likely call you personally and remind you on your late payment. They are keen to keep you as a customer and will probably not remove your account and your website immediately.
Web Statistics
Ask the web hosting company if they provide extensive website statistics. You want to know how many visitors have accessed your website, what search terms they used to find your website in Google and other search engines, how many visitors you have per day, on a certain day of the week, and so on. Please also ask if you can have access to the website log files. You might think that adding a website hit counter will provide enough information, but that is actually the most inaccurate method of counting your website visitors - and apart from that they look tacky and unprofessional. Your web hosting company should provide statistics that are at least as comprehensive as Webalizer and if statistics are important for you, you need to have access to your log files which can then be analyzed with statistics analysing software (such as Surfstats).
E-Mail issues to watch out for
Before you take out sign up with a hosting company, ask them if they provide SMTP/POP3 which you need to set up email accounts. If you want one or several e-mail addresses with your website - such as This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. - the web hosting company needs to provide SMTP/POP3 setup. Some web hosting companies only allow you to receive emails sent to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , but they will not allow you to use these e-mail addresses to send e-mails from. They will simply argue that you can use your Internet Service Provider E-Mail address - such as This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. . This does not look professional at all, and you should avoid web hosting companies that do not provide SMTP/POP3 service.
Check with your web hosting company how often backups are made. Usually, backups are made on a daily basis. If you have a large online store on your website and the server room at the web hosting premises is on fire, you will lose all your work if they do not back up their web server files. So please check if they have a backup routine in place.
Free Webhosting with your internet service provider
Please do not use this! Your internet service provider company provide an internet connection. That is what they specialise in. They sometimes "throw in" free web hosting for up to 100 MB or even more. They normally do not provide SMTP / POP3 setup for the sending / receiving of emails related to your website (such as This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ), nor will they provide databases, server scripting language support and such like. Usually, you can only upload websites developed in pure HTML, and in some cases you will not be able to use FTP software for uploading your files and managing your files on the web server. Your business website will probably use some sort of server-side scripting language - such as ASP, PHP etc. and maybe use a database such as MySQL. If your website is with your Internet Service Provider, the support for this service can be poor and the account can sometimes not be upgraded to include server-side scripting languages, and/or databases.
Web Hosting Costs
Web Hosting costs can vary greatly. You can take out web hosting for as little as £15 per year, or you can get web hosting, including 5 email addresses, 100 MB web space (which is a lot for a small business presence) for as little as £30 per year (check out Plugsocket). If you buy a web design magazine, you will see many adverts from bigger web hosting companies. Check out their prices, their policies, and maybe give them a call - you will find out how long it takes until your call is answered. Do not jump in because it is cheap, and conversely, do not think the service must be great because it is expensive. Check out what is on offer and then make an informed decision.
Nadin Dunnigan Web Developer of Marketing Agency in Scotland West Lothian.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Nadin_Roth


The Best Web Hosting Companies

With more than 5,000 web hosting companies on the Internet, consumers are looking for a short cut to finding the best service for their business and personal requirements. A little known secret from the “geek” community can greatly simplify the process of finding the perfect match for you.

Since the mid-1990’s, a company in Bath, England called Netcraft has been providing free research data and analysis on many aspects of the Internet. They are a respected authority on web hosting providers, operating systems, ISP’s, electronic commerce, encryption, and content technologies, to name but a few. Netcraft is the place where webmasters and other information technology professionals go when they want answers to solve real-world problems. Fortunately, one of the best reports Netcraft produces is an on-line near-real-time web host performance report. It provides performance data on about 50 of the top web hosting companies on the Internet. Incredibly, the report is free and updated every 15 minutes.

Netcraft's Hosting Providers Network Performance report can best serve those who are seeking to locate a reliable hosting service. It tracks outages over the past 24 hours providing the hours, minutes, and seconds information. Performance monitoring agents are operating in the USA and UK so that the network performance can be determined from different points. Web hosting performance is comprised of the time to process the http GET request and return the page contents. The time reported depends on the speed of the processor, the size of the data, the number of concurrent requests being processed by the web server and so forth. Dynamic content generally requires more time than static content. During the http GET request Netcraft records four times: (1) DNS (2) connect (3) first byte, and (4) total.

The DNS category provides performance information on the time it takes for the Domain Name Service (DNS) to lookup the hostname. The customer's local name server as well as the authoritative name server for the domain affects DNS response time. Due to the wide variability of this performance parameter it is not part of the total time recorded. The connect performance parameter is the first phase of the http GET request when the TCP/IP connection is made to the web hosting server. Connect is typically reflective of network latency but if the web host is under heavy load the time recorded will increase. The first bye performance parameter is the time from when the last byte of the http GET request is sent until the first byte of the response header is received. Although many different factors, including application associated processing, are involved this performance parameter is generally useful in determining how fast the web hosting server is responding. From a performance perspective this is the silver bullet because studies have shown that consumers purchase more often and in higher dollar amounts from fast performing web servers. The last performance parameter is the total, which is the time from when the http GET request is started until the last byte is received.

Can selecting a great web hosting provider really be so simple as looking at web hosting performance reports? Well, yes and no. If you are simply looking for the best virtual web hosting company using Netcraft's web hosting performance report can help you select from the 1% of hosting companies who are so confident in their service that they pay Netcraft to monitor and publish the results for everyone to see. The chances are very good that companies willing to do this will do everything possible to keep their operation running as competitively as possible. Of course, you still need to determine which of these best 50 companies can satisfy your needs in terms of operating system support, programming languages supported and so forth. You can save yourself lots of valuable research time by using iTechGuide's Top Performance Web Hosting Companies table to help further identify the best web hosting company for your needs.



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Since 2006, iTechGuide.com has provided independent reviews. Our reviews, ratings and awards are not based on any incentives or commissions. Notwithstanding, to keep our service online we accept compensation from some of the companies whose products we review within and outside of the IT industry, including, but not limited to, paid advertising placements, referral fees, and in-content advertising links.

Popular Hosting Services

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