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What Is The Difference Between CAT5 And CAT6 Ethernet Cables?

Today, there are two types of Ethernet cables that are being used to connect electronic devices worldwide. These cables are the CAT5 and CAT6 Ethernet cables. Although they are both twisted pair cable designed primarily for carrying signals, there are noticeable differences between the two.
Cat5 is the much older variation of the Cat6 cable. This cable is connected by utilizing modular connectors and punch down blocks. Cat5 has the capability to support frequencies that can reach up to 100MHz and provide speeds that can reach 10 Mbps.
These are the most common networking cables used today. They can be utilized in token ring, ATM, 100BASE-TX, 10BASE-TX and 1000BASE-T networking. Additionally, these cables can carry signals such as video and telephony.
They rely on differential signaling and their twisted pair design for noise reduction. Unlike other Ethernet connections, this Ethernet cable consists of four twisted pairs of copper wire that are unshielded and terminated by RJ45 connectors.
However, much faster Ethernet connections only utilize two of the four pairs while the other two go unused. This is one of the main factors why people are saying that this Ethernet cable does not live up to its fullest capabilities. The Cat5e can run over 328 feet or 100 meters without the need for a switch that could extend the length of this cable.
Cat6 is the most advanced Ethernet cable among the two. Similar to the Cat5, it consists of four pairs of twisted copper wire. However, it works much faster than the Cat5 and has the capability to support much higher frequencies. This is because it can provide speeds that can reach up to 10 Gbps and frequencies up to a maximum of 250 MHZ.
These cables can do this because they contain a unique structural feature that is called a longitudinal separator. This feature helps isolate each of the four pairs of twisted copper wire from each other. It also helps reduce crosstalk for much faster data transfer compared to the Cat5.
The Cat6 is backward compatible. It means that it can be used effectively with Cat5e and Cat5. Cat6 Ethernet cables have a unique advantage over Cat5 cables. They are more modern and much faster. However, they are not as widely used as the Cat5.
This is primarily due to the fact that they are more expensive than Cat5 cables, and the majority of people do not require or use 10 Gigabit Ethernet. Similar to Cat5, Cat6 cables can be run up to 328 feet or 100 meters without the need for a switch. However, cables that have the capability to support 10 Gbps can be run 180.45 feet or 55 meters.

Due to its superior immunity from a wide range of external noise and its improved transmission performance, Cat6 has fewer system operating errors than Cat5. This also leads to much less re-transmission of corrupt or lost information packets under a variety of conditions.  Now you can truly understand the differences between CAT5 and CAT6 ethernet cables and how they work.

About the Author

Michael Alvarez has been working in the electronics and technology field for over 20 years.  He enjoys sharing his knowledge and expertise of CAT5 and CAT6 ethernet cables with others; while continuing to grow his knowledge.

Ambient Backscatter And Battery-Free Communication

There is energy in the air all around us at all times. This isn't a pseudo-mystical statement either; the sheer amount of power from radio and television waves in the air is a massive, untapped resource. At least it was, until Washington University hit on a way to use it that's referred to as ambient backscatter.

What is Ambient Backscatter, and How Does it Work?

The idea of ambient backscatter is that it should be possible to use existing transmission waves to power battery-less devices in such a way that they can still perform simple tasks. The theory was that these devices could communicate with one another, act as sensors, and even send simple text messages. There would be no requirement of additional power, and it would make use of an environmental factor that's already filling the area. In fact these devices would work anywhere there's a number of wavelengths filling the air, whether they're for cell phones, Internet, television, or some other application entirely.

The devices are designed so that, rather than using an on-board source of power, they can draw power from the electromagnetic waves in the area. Scientists tested the range from as far as a few feet, to six and a half miles using these devices that rode the radio waves to get their messages sent. Further testing is still in the works, but the initial tests show some serious potential.

What are the Potential Benefits of Ambient Backscatter?

This unusual development has caught hold of the scientific imagination, and the potential for these devices is nearly limitless. For instance, they could be put on a bridge to monitor the integrity of the concrete. When a hairline fracture occurs, the sensor beams a message back on the already existing wavelengths. This requires no changing out, no battery upkeep, no power source; it's just a constant, never-sleeping guardian that keeps watch. The same sensors could be used to watch for fires, for security networks, and a dozen other applications. Simply install, and leave it unless something breaks the sensor so completely that it isn't physically intact anymore.

These devices could, in theory, also be worked into existing electronics that do use batteries so that even when the charge is completely drained some basic forms of communication are still possible. This would also allow for things like text messages to be composed and sent without actually putting a drain on the battery, making phones last longer on a single charge simply by virtue of using less power than they might otherwise do.

A Green Future 

There's no use in letting anything go to waste; not even ambient cell phone energy. So if it's possible to send a text, or to monitor a secure location, without spending one iota of power, then who wouldn't take advantage of that? In fact, given the potential these devices offer, it's possible that miniaturized devices will become even more popular. Miniature computers that work free of battery packs, or only on tiny watch batteries, might become the next generation of technology when existing wavelengths can provide the brunt of the heavy lifting needed.

This guest post was provided by Eduardo Dieguez, professional blogger for www.i-Adapters.com. An avid computer enthusiast, Eduardo spends countless hours tinkering with electronics both new and old.

Top trends used in web development services

The year 2013 brings with it a number of web development and website design trends. Discussed below are just a few recent website development trends that will probably remain popular and useful for the rest of the year.

Large photo backgrounds

An increasingly large number of websites are using large photographic backgrounds recently. These photos, which are often oversized, can quickly grab the attention of the visitor and add to the overall look of a website when done right. They can blend in with the content and layout of the web page to make them more engaging.

Responsive layouts

Responsive web page layouts are trending since last year, but the focus has shifted a lot over the course of 2012. When the trend began, responsive web pages were made to cater to visitors accessing websites through mobile browsers, but that is not the sole purpose anymore. Responsive web page layouts are now being designed to meet the requirements of various forms of digital media and allow the page to be displayed properly on all devices like desktops, laptops, tablets, smartphones, and other devices that may come up in the near future. The idea is to make the website accessible through various platforms with just a single set of codes.

Illustrations and infographics

Websites are constantly competing for their visitors’ attention, and in recent times, illustrations and infographics have helped in achieving this effectively. Of course, this brings up the challenge of finding designers who have the skills and creativity to create unique and eye-catching info graphics and illustrations for your website. These website development trend illustrations can be used in a lot of ways within your website, but the key to a successful one is to blend it into your website’s branding correctly.

Infinite page scrolling

Infinite page scrolling has been used by some websites in the last few years, but it has only really kicked off among several thousands of websites during the second half of 2012 and, if things go well, all the way through 2013 as well. For instance, Facebook has had it for more than a year now, and Pinterest also adopted this technique this year. In both cases, the change was done really well and makes website navigation a much easier affair than before.

Similarly, Tumblr has also had an infinite scrolling element added to its website, allowing you to blog or repost content from others you follow. Like Facebook, all the posts you see on your account keep going on as you scroll down further.

Tom is a guest blogger who blogs on behalf of Nariel, the leading web development and web design company in New Jersey. For more information please visit their website.

How To Delete Cookies From Your Mac

The most commonly used web browsers on a Mac running OS X are: Safari and Firefox.   If you wish to delete the cookies stored on your mac follow these directions:

A.  Safari version 6.0.3:

1.  Open ‘Safari’ from the main menu;
2.  Click on ‘Preferences’ or press the key;
3.  Click the ‘Privacy’ tab with the silhoutte icon;

Safari Privacy Tab image
4.  Click on ‘Remove All Website Data' or select `details' to remove individual cookies

Remember that removing cookies in Safari may change or remove them in other applications such as Dashboard.To

B.  To Delete Cookies in Firefox version 19.0.2 on a Mac:

To Delete Cookies in Firefox 19.0.2 on Mac

1.  Start ‘Firefox’ from the main menu
2.  Select ‘Preferences’ and click or press the key;
3.  Select ‘Privacy’ by clicking on the mask image;

4.  Choose ‘Show Cookies’ and choose ‘Remove Cookies’ or 'Remove All Cookies';

Some people view 'cookies' as an evil corporate snooping invention but used correctly they can be a great automation tool.  Firefox, for example, can remember the 'userid' and 'login password' used on various websites.  These days it is not uncommon to use dozens of different userid+password combinations.  This can be a real benefit for those who use a large number of accounts.


The Influence Of Photoshop

The Evolution of Photo-Editing

Images cut through all our critical defenses, or so we've been told. Whereas text has to be slowly digested by our brain, images head straight for the nerve centers. This is why images are an essential tool for advertising, and why society is becoming increasingly visual as technology advances.

 As the toolsqa photo of Lenin addressing soviet troops was famously altered to remove Trotsky per Wikipedia, complex techniques such as darkroom manipulation and airbrushing have been replaced by more accessible digital editing tools like Photoshop. A consequence of the prevalence of doctored images is that people no longer readily accept what their eyes tell them.

Sometimes the evidence of photo tampering is easy to detect, but, in the hands of a skilled Photoshop artist, manipulated photos can look very convincing indeed.

According to Business Insider, advertising regulators in the USA have taken steps towards banning the use of Photoshop in images promoting cosmetics due to the potential for false advertising. This will also, hopefully, avoid the barrage of Photoshop accusations that routinely greet any controversial image posted on the net.

A Tool for Photographers, Advertisers and Artists

Photoshop can make an old picture look like a new picture, or make a photo look like a painting. Its ability to combine text and graphics in creative ways is a powerful tool for advertising, and its photo-editing capabilities have created awe-inspiring works of art, as well as the mass production of countless hilarious memes.

According to Rafin O’Hara, the tools provided by Photoshop allow photographers to challenge certain limitations, such as:

  • Time: Old photos can be scanned and loaded into Photoshop, where healing brushes and patch correction can be used to remove the effects of deterioration.

  • Human error: Mistakes such as bad lighting, red eye, over-exposure, and blotches can be rectified.

  • Reality: Paintbrush techniques can be used to create fantastical imagery, effectively combining the arts of photography and painting.

So, while some worry about the effects of false advertising, others take the opportunity to unleash their creativity in ways that were never before accessible. Whether your goal is to produce high-quality photographs, create cybernetic snails or simply insert cats into ancient Greek paintings the opportunities presented by Photoshop are numerous.

 About The Author

Matthew Flax writes for Now Learning, which offers a range of Photoshop short courses in Australia.

OS X Keyboard Shortcuts

Key Effect
C Start from CD
D Start from 1st Partition
N Start from Net Server
R Resets laptop screen
S Single-user boot
V Verbose Mode
V Unix console msgs
Power Keys Effect
Ctrleject icon Shutdown, sleep, restart
Opteject icon Sleep
CtrlOpteject icon Shutdown
Ctrlpower Restart










FTC 16 CFR Part 255 Disclosure

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